ssize_t read(int fildes, void buf, size_t nbyte);
#include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/uio.h>
ssize_t readv(int fildes, const struct iovec iov, int iovcnt);
On devices capable of seeking, the read starts at a position in the file given by the file pointer associated with fildes. On return from read, the file pointer is incremented by the number of bytes actually read.
Devices that are incapable of seeking always read from the current position. The value of a file pointer associated with such a file is undefined.
readv performs the same action as read, but places the input data into the iovcnt buffers specified by the members of the iov array: iov, iov, . . ., iov[iovcnt-1].
For readv, the iovec structure contains the following members:
void *iov_base; size_t iov_len;
Each iovec entry specifies the base address and length of an area in memory where data should be placed. readv always fills one buffer completely before proceeding to the next.
On success, read and readv return the number of bytes actually read and placed in the buffer; this number may be less than nbyte if the file is associated with a communication line (see ioctl(2) and termio(7)), or if the number of bytes left in the file is less than nbyte, or if the file is a pipe or a special file. A value of 0 is returned when an end-of-file has been reached.
read reads data previously written to a file. If any portion of an ordinary file prior to the end of file has not been written, read returns the number of bytes read as 0. For example, the lseek routine allows the file pointer to be set beyond the end of existing data in the file. If additional data is written at this point, later reads in the gap between the previous end of data and newly written data return bytes with a value of 0 until data is written into the gap.
A read or readv from a STREAMS
operate in three different modes: byte-stream mode,
message-nondiscard mode, and message-discard mode.
The default is byte-stream mode.
This can be changed using the
and can be tested with the I_GRDOPT
request. In byte-stream mode, read and readv usually retrieve data from the stream until they have retrieved nbyte bytes, or until there is no more data to be retrieved. Byte-stream mode usually ignores message boundaries.
In STREAMS message-nondiscard mode, read and readv retrieve data until they have read nbyte bytes, or until they reach a message boundary. If read or readv does not retrieve all the data in a message, the remaining data is replaced on the stream and can be retrieved by the next read or readv call. Message-discard mode also retrieves data until it has retrieved nbyte bytes, or it reaches a message boundary. However, unread data remaining in a message after the read or readv returns is discarded, and is not available for a later read, readv, or getmsg (see getmsg(2)).
When attempting to read from a regular file with mandatory file/record locking set (see chmod(2)), and there is a write lock owned by another process on the segment of the file to be read:
When attempting to read from an empty pipe (or FIFO):
When attempting to read a file associated with a terminal that has no data currently available:
When attempting to read a file associated with a stream that is not a pipe or FIFO, or terminal, and that has no data currently available:
When reading from a STREAMS file, handling of zero-byte messages is determined by the current read mode setting. In byte-stream mode, read accepts data until it has read nbyte bytes, or until there is no more data to read, or until a zero-byte message block is encountered. read then returns the number of bytes read, and places the zero-byte message back on the stream to be retrieved by the next read or getmsg (see getmsg(2)). In the two other modes, a zero-byte message returns a value of 0 and the message is removed from the stream. When a zero-byte message is read as the first message on a stream, a value of 0 is returned regardless of the read mode.
A read or readv from a STREAMS file returns the data in the message at the front of the stream head read queue, regardless of the priority band of the message.
Normally, a read from a STREAMS file can only process messages with data and without control information. The read fails if a message containing control information is encountered at the stream head. This default action can be changed by placing the stream in either control-data mode or control-discard mode with the I_SRDOPT ioctl(2). In control-data mode, control messages are converted to data messages by read. In control-discard mode, control messages are discarded by read, but any data associated with the control messages is returned to the user.
A read from a STREAMS file also fails if an error message is received at the stream head. In this case, errno is set to the value returned in the error message. If a hangup occurs on the stream being read, read continues to operate normally until the stream head read queue is empty. Thereafter, it returns 0.
In addition, readv may return one of the following errors:
If fildes refers to a socket, read is equivalent to recv(3sock) with no flags set.
While one thread is blocked, siblings might still be executing.