FILE *fopen(const char *filename, const char *type);
FILE *fopen64(const char *filename, const char *type);
FILE *freopen(const char *filename, const char *type, FILE *stream);
FILE *freopen64(const char *filename, const char *type, FILE *stream);
FILE *fdopen(int fildes, const char *type);
filename points to a character string that contains the name of the file to be opened.
type is a character string beginning with one of the following sequences:
The ``b'' has no effect in the above types. The ``b'' exists to distinguish binary files from text files. There is no distinction between these types of files on a UNIX system.
freopen substitutes the named file in place of the open stream. A flush is first attempted, and then the original stream is closed, regardless of whether the open ultimately succeeds. Failure to flush or close stream successfully is ignored. freopen returns a pointer to the FILE structure associated with stream.
freopen is typically used to attach the preopened streams associated with stdin, stdout, and stderr to other files. stderr is by default unbuffered, but the use of freopen will cause it to become buffered or line-buffered.
fdopen associates a stream with a file descriptor. File descriptors are obtained from open, dup, creat, or pipe, which open files but do not return pointers to a FILE structure stream Streams are necessary input for almost all of the Section 3S library routines. The type of stream must agree with the mode of the open file. The file position indicator associated with stream is set to the position indicated by the file offset associated with fildes.
When a file is opened for update, both input and output may be done on the resulting stream. However, output may not be directly followed by input without an intervening fflush, fseek, fsetpos, or rewind, and input may not be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek, fsetpos, or rewind, or an input operation that encounters end-of-file.
When a file is opened for append (i.e., when type is ``a'', ``ab'', ``a+'', or ``ab+''), it is impossible to overwrite information already in the file. fseek may be used to reposition the file pointer to any position in the file, but when output is written to the file, the current file pointer is disregarded. All output is written at the end of the file and causes the file pointer to be repositioned at the end of the output. If two separate processes open the same file for append, each process may write freely to the file without fear of destroying output being written by the other. The output from the two processes will be intermixed in the file in the order in which it is written.
When opened, a stream is fully buffered if and only if it can be determined not to refer to an interactive device. The error and end-of-file indicators are cleared for the stream.
fopen64 and freopen64 support large files, but are otherwise identical to their counterparts. Large file support is filesystem-dependent, supported only on vxfs file system types [see mkfs_vxfs(1M)]. For details on programming for large file capable applications, see ``Large File Support'' on intro(2) and ``Large files'' in Understanding filesystem types in the discussion of the vxfs filesystem type in Understanding filesystem types.
fopen and freopen fail and set errno when filename is a regular file and its size cannot be represented correctly in an object of type off_t.
fdopen returns a null pointer if fildes is not an open file descriptor, or if type is invalid, or if the file cannot be opened.