UnixWare 7 System Handbook

About this book
        How this book is organized
        Related documentation
        Typographical conventions
        How can we improve this book?

Administering systems
        Understanding the basics
                What is system administration?
                What to read if you are new
                Keeping a system log
                The root account and system owner
                The keyboard
                Running programs simultaneously with multiscreen displays
                System security
                Administration interfaces
                        Desktop graphical user interface
                        The command line (shell) interface
                The kernel
                Booting the system
                System tuning
                Managing users and groups
                Backing up and restoring files
                Configuring hardware
                Adding and removing software applications
        Educating users
        Planning your site
                User resource considerations
                Network considerations
                Hardware considerations
        Summary of system administration tasks

Introduction to using the system
        What do I need to know?
        Logging in
        Using the CDE desktop
                Customizing your work environment
        Using SCOhelp
        Logging out
        Using Netscape
        Reading and sending email
        Using the calendar
        Running programs and entering commands
                Opening a terminal window
                Killing hung processes
                Resetting a scrambled terminal
        Working with files and directories
                Printing files
                Editing files
        Using disks, diskettes, CD-ROM and tapes
        Communicating with other systems

Administering your system with SCOadmin
        Starting SCOadmin from the command line
        Refreshing data in the display
        Using point help
        Using the toolbar
                Customizing the toolbar
        Using SCOadmin in character mode
                Navigating the character screen
                Using character buttons
        Administering other systems with SCOadmin
                Remote capabilities
                        Enabling remote manager capabilities
                Distributed capabilities
                Selecting another host to manage
                Managing host groups
                        Configuring a host group
                        Performing a host group operation
                        Reading or writing a host group file
                Using the SCOadmin Setup Wizard
                Increasing SCOadmin security in a networked environment
        Troubleshooting SCOadmin
                SCOadmin will not start
                Recovering from remote administration problems
                Recovering from SCOadmin failures in character mode
                SCOadmin error trace
                The SCOadmin event log
                        Understanding the SCOadmin event log
                        Using the SCOadmin event log

Installing, managing, and removing software
        Software management terminology and concepts
                Add-on package terminology
                Package instances
                Installation target directories
                The installation software database
                Methods of installation
                Network installation and install servers
        Using the Application Installer
                Modifying the Application Installer view
        Installing software
                Installing software (Application Installer)
                        UNIX compatibility
                        Copying application icons to folders
                Installing software (pkgadd)
                        Customizing interactive pkgadd installation
                Installing a package or set in non-interactive mode (pkgadd)
                        Installing multiple packages non-interactively
                Installing software from a remote machine (pkginstall)
                Installing software from a remote machine (NFS)
                Spooling packages without installing them (pkgadd)
                        Checking the accuracy of a spooled package (pkgchk -d)
                        Displaying information about spooled packages (pkginfo -d)
                        Removing a spooled package
                Installing applications not designed for UnixWare
        Managing software
                Viewing installed applications (Application Installer)
                Viewing properties of installed applications (Application Installer)
                Displaying information about installed packages or sets (pkginfo, pkgparam)
                        Displaying set installation packages (SIPs)
                        Customizing the format and contents of the pkginfo display
                        Showing the value of a parameter (pkgparam)
                Checking installation accuracy (pkgchk)
                        Checking against the pkgmap file (pkgchk -m)
                        Correcting differences while checking accuracy (pkgchk -n -f)
        Removing software
                Removing packages and sets (Application Installer)
                Removing packages and sets (pkgrm)
                        Removing a package or set with an alternative admin file
        Setting up and administering an install server
                Before setting up an install server
                Enabling and disabling an install server
                Staging products and packages on an install server
                Unstaging products or packages from an install server
        Modifying default installation parameters
                Creating an admin file
                        Example admin file
                Creating a response file (pkgask)

Starting and stopping the system
        Understanding the boot process
                Boot scenarios
                Where the boot programs reside
                        The boot slice
                                Operations on the boot slice
                        The stand slice
        Starting (rebooting) your system
        Stopping your system
                Stopping your system using SCOadmin
                Using the shutdown command
                Using the haltsys and reboot commands
        Logging in as root
        Building on boot
                Forcing confirmation before build on boot
        Installing a new kernel
        Initiating an interactive boot session
        Bootable partition administration
                Create new partitions during installation
                Creating a new boot partition
                Changing the active boot partition
                Fixing a frozen cursor during login
                What to do if the system does not boot

Administering user accounts
        The Account Manager interface
        Adding, copying and modifying user accounts
                Adding users on the command-line with useradd(1M)
                Deleting a user account
                        Removing selected account information
                Reactivating a deactivated user account
                Limiting reuse of UIDs
                Setting and changing user and group IDs (UID/GID)
                        Changing ownership of files with an obsolete UID/GID
                Changing user login groups
                Changing a user's group membership
                Changing a user's locale
                Setting remote access for a user
                        About user equivalence
                Changing user login shells
                Login shells
                Restricted shells
                Changing user home directories
                Adding and modifying default environment files
        Managing groups
                About groups
                Adding or modifying a group
                Removing a group
                Setting the group ID for file creation in a directory
                Changing the limit on simultaneous group membership
        Managing passwords
                Setting or changing a user password
                Controlling password expiration
                        Changing password expiration defaults
                Controlling password selection
                About password restrictions
                        Allowing accounts without passwords
                        Disallowing password changes
                        Setting password length
                Setting passwords for dial-in lines
        Setting login restrictions
                Setting login restrictions on accounts
                Controlling account expiration
                        Locking inactive accounts
                        Creating a temporary account
                Locking or unlocking a user account
        Assigning user powers
                Assigning authorizations
                Allowing users to execute superuser commands
                Accessing other accounts with su(1M)
                        Logging su(1M) usage
        Changing the system security profile
                Security profiles
        Understanding account database files
                Editing the /etc/passwd file
                Configuring the shadow password file
        Copying user accounts between SCO OpenServer and UnixWare systems
        Troubleshooting the Account Manager
                Illegal value for a user or group attribute
                Remote administration problem
                Missing files

Performing basic system monitoring and tuning
        Using the System Information Manager
        Using the Login Session Viewer or the who command
        Using the System Time Manager
        Using the System Monitor
                Managing log data
                Setting System Monitor alarms
                Setting System Monitor options
                Customizing System Monitor colors
                        Setting colors using the sysmonitor file
                        Setting colors using the .sys_mon file
        Using the System Tuner
        Using the System Defaults Manager
        Checking and clearing system log files
                Using the System Logs Manager
                Clearing system log files from the command line
                Clearing log files automatically
        Using the Reports Manager
                Reporting password status
                Reporting user login activity
                Making list selections
                Enabling or disabling system accounting
                Viewing system accounting reports
                Checking file security
        Communicating with users
                Message of the day
                The wall command
        Changing the maximum allowed file size (ulimit)
                Considerations for large files
        Managing swap space
                Determining swap usage
                Changing swap space size
                        Adding swap space
                        Reducing swap space
        Managing processors and processes
                Licensing multiple processors
                Using the Processor Manager
                Displaying processor information (psrinfo)
                Taking processors on/off-line (psradm)
                Binding processes to processors (pbind)
                Placing processors in an exclusive binding mode (pexbind)

Administering filesystems
        The Filesystem Manager interface
        About filesystems
                Filesystem types
        Adding and removing mount configuration
        Modifying filesystem mount configuration
                vxfs advanced mount options
                        Understanding sync-on-close
                        Understanding intent logging
                NFS advanced mount options
                cdfs advanced mount options
                        Mapping CD-ROM files to system entities
                        Option Persistence
                        Applying CDFS Advanced Mount Options
        Mounting and unmounting filesystems
                About mounting and unmounting NFS filesystems
                Understanding share access permissions
                About mounting DOS filesystems
                        DOS filesystems and access permissions
                        DOS filesystem limitations
                Using marry to create filesystem images on files
        Adding or modifying share configuration
                Setting anonymous NFS access permissions
        Removing share configuration
        Sharing and unsharing filesystems
        Checking and repairing filesystems
                How UNIX systems maintain files and filesystems
        Maintaining free space in filesystems
                Displaying filesystem and directory usage statistics
                Locating files
                        Finding temporary files
                        Executing commands based on find output
                Monitoring files and directories that grow
                Deleting /tmp directories
                Adding disk space and restructuring filesystems
        Troubleshooting the Filesystem Manager
                Remote administration problem
                Missing or corrupted database files

Managing the print service
        The Printer Setup Manager interface
        Adding, modifying, or copying a local printer
        Adding, modifying, or copying a network printer
        Setting up a dial-up printer
                If the connection is busy
        Deleting local or remote printers
        Assigning a default printer
                Assigning a class as default printer
                Setting a default printer for a user
        Managing the print service
                Enabling and disabling printers
                Accepting or rejecting print jobs
                Starting and stopping the print service
                About printer device connections
                About serial communication settings
        Controlling access to printers
                Setting access for remote systems
                Setting access for local users
                Allowing users to enable and disable a printer
        About printer classes
                Grouping printers into a class
        Troubleshooting the Printer Setup Manager
                Remote administration problem
                Missing or corrupted database files
                Execution problems
                Printing to Hewlett-Packard Printers
        Troubleshooting the print system
                lpsched print scheduler is not running
                Printer does not print
                Cannot redirect output to printer
                Port does not respond
                Printer output is illegible
                Printer output spacing is wrong
                Printer reports BNU (UUCP) errors
                A print request is canceled by the print service
                A print request that will not cancel
                No output and no notification from the lp command
                Printer stops working after printing 2 or 3 pages
                Wrong character set or font
                The printer is idle
                The lpstat -o command hangs
                Networking problems
                        Jobs backed up in the client queue
                        Jobs backed up in the server queue
                        Conflicting messages about the acceptance of jobs

Managing print jobs
        The Print Job Manager interface
        Selecting and deselecting multiple jobs
        Viewing jobs in the print queue
        Deleting print jobs
        Holding and resuming print jobs
        Transferring a job to another printer
        Moving jobs to the top of the queue
        Setting print queue priorities
                Setting the priority level for a print job
                Setting individual and default priority limits
                Setting the default priority level

Specifying the locale
        The International Settings Manager interface
        Setting locales
                Setting the system locale
                About locales
                        Regular expressions and locales
                        How mail translates between locales
        Setting the system keyboard
        Selecting codesets
                Setting the console codeset
                Translating files between different codesets
                Changing the system time zone

Troubleshooting system-level problems
        Other troubleshooting documentation
        Preparing to recover from problems
        Recovering from a system panic
                Hardware panic
                Software panic
                Recovering from a system hang
                        Hardware hang
                        Software hang
                Forcing a panic on your system
                Checking error messages
                Checking system files with error histories
                Automatic reboot
                Saving the system dump memory image
                Saving a system dump while in multi-user state
                Examining a memory dump with crash(1M)
                Studying a panic
                Additional help from your provider
        Solving boot problems
                <Ctrl><Alt><Del> does not reboot the system
                System hangs during reboot
                System with multiple operating systems does not boot UnixWare
                System panics during reboot
                System hangs repeatedly
                Resource Manager database corrupted
        Controller problems
                I/O address, memory address, or interrupt conflicts
                Incorrect IRQ value
                Unknown traps or spurious interrupts
        Kernel build fails
        Mouse does not work
        Administrative commands fail consistently

Creating and using emergency recovery media
        Keys to recovering your system
        Creating emergency recovery boot media
        Creating emergency recovery tapes
                Handling tape error messages
                After creating emergency recovery tapes
        Emergency recovery with an encapsulated or mirrored root disk
                Creating the Emergency Recovery boot media and tapes
                Bringing the system back after emergency media is created
                Performing recovery when the primary and mirrored root disks fail
        Recovering an unusable system

Hardware configuration overview
        Accessing the SCO Compatible Hardware Web Pages
        Supported architecture
        General compatibility issues
        Using configuration interfaces
        Rebuilding your system
        Troubleshooting hardware problems
                Hardware and operating system differences
                Identifying the problem
                Before calling for help
                        A description of the problem
                        System configuration

Configuring Plug and Play devices
        The PnP Configuration Manager interface
        Physically adding a PnP adapter
        Selecting a adapter and device to configure
                Modifying resource allocation for a device
                Enabling BIOS resource allocation
                Disabling a device
        Resolving configuration conflicts
        Applying and deferring hardware configuration
        Troubleshooting adapter configuration
        Terminology and concepts
                Plug and Play Glossary
                Plug and Play files and utilities

Mass storage devices overview
        What is the Storage Device Interface (SDI)?
                What are target drivers?
                What are HBA drivers?
        Physical devices
        Device drivers, special files and the device database
        Mass storage device names
                Hard disks
                Tape drives
                        Retensioning and rewinding
                CD-ROM drives
                WORM drives
                Medium changers
        Managing mass storage devices and media
                Suggestions for managing storage devices
                Displaying information about devices
                Displaying information about media
                Formatting hard disks
                Checking a corrupt filesystem
                Managing multipath I/O environments
                        Managing ghost names in multipath I/O environments
                Adding or removing hardware controllers
                Creating disk partitions and slices
                        Hard disk partitioning
                        Defining slices
                Adding hard disks
                Adding tape drives
                Hot adding or removing SCSI storage devices
                Hot-plugable controllers
                Removing old disk addresses after moving a disk
                Expanding swap space
        Copying data on mass storage media
                Copying files from hard disk to hard disk
                Copying directory contents from hard disk to tape
                Copying files from tape to hard disk

Configuring video adapters
        The Video Configuration Manager interface
        Understanding video configuration
                About function keys and video configuration
                Understanding resolutions
                Searching for adapters
                Understanding multi-monitor configuration
        Modifying monitors, resolutions, and function keys
                Changing the configured video monitor
                Changing a configured resolution
                Adding a resolution
                Assigning function keys
                        Assigning specific function keys
        Testing a video adapter configuration
        Adding a new video adapter
        Upgrading video adapter support
                Upgrading SCO UnixWare 2.X video adapter support
                Upgrading SCO OpenServer Release 5 video adapter support
        Removing a video configuration
        Configuring unsupported adapters
        Troubleshooting video configuration

Configuring audio adapters
        The Audio Configuration Manager interface
        About the audio subsystem
        Adding and modifying audio configurations
        Removing adapters
        Common audio subsystem tasks
                Playing sound files
                Recording sound samples
                Playing audio CDs from your CD-ROM drive
                Configuring Netscape Navigator to play sound files
        Troubleshooting audio configuration
                Audio device entries in the Resource Manager database
                Compatibility with earlier audio drivers
                Errors after initial sound reproduction

Configuring serial ports
        Flow control
                Speed considerations
        Asynchronous data communications
        Serial device node naming conventions
        The ttydefs file
        The Serial Manager
        Viewing serial boards
        Viewing configured serial ports
        Configuring a serial port

Adding and configuring modems
        Supported modems
        Installing a modem
                Choosing which serial port to use
                Connecting a modem to your computer
        The Modem Manager
        Configuring modems
                        Detecting a modem automatically
                        Adding a modem manually
                Modifying the configuration of a modem
                Removing a modem
        Modem settings
        Guidelines for uncertified modems
                Configuring a modem without using the Modem Manager
        Changing modem settings from the command line
        Installing modem configuration files
        Configuring UUCP for modems
                Using /etc/uucp/Dialers
                        Dialers file entries
        Configuring a PCMCIA modem
        Testing your modem connection
                Testing whether you can dial out
                Testing whether you can dial in
        Troubleshooting modems
                Problems dialing out
                        Modem dials, but does not connect
                        NO DEVICES AVAILABLE message
                        Modem answers, but terminal displays garbage
                        DEVICE LOCKED message
                        Modem does not hang up
                        Double echo
                Problems dialing in
                        Modem does not answer the phone
                        Modem answers, but hangs up
                        Garbage or loose cable
                        Modem answers, but no login prompt is displayed
                        Screen displays a series of login prompts
                        System displays meaningless characters

Configuring outgoing PPP connections
        The PPP Outgoing Connection Wizard interface
        Defining an outgoing PPP link
                Configuring a service provider
                Configuring PPP authentication
                Configuring a login script
                Configuring network protocol parameters
                Configuring name service
                Device Selection